Born in Birmingham, England, many moons ago, I am currently an Associate Professor at the Institute of Security and Global Affairs at Leiden University in The Hague.

I am the Scientific Coordinator of H2020 RIA ‘DRIVE‘ [Determining multilevel-led causes and testing intervention designs to reduce radicalisation, extremism and political violence in North-Western Europe through social inclusion], a consortium led by Leiden University in partnership with Aarhus University, Umeå University, University of Cambridge, University of Liverpool and the University of Oslo. DRIVE also works closely with civil society organisations ConnectFutures in the UK and Fryshuset in Sweden. It runs from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2023.

I have held a variety of academic roles, namely in Birmingham, Istanbul and currently in The Hague, includng visiting scholar or visiting professor positions in New York City, Oxford, London, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Islamabad and Jakarta. My academic work over the last decade and a half focuses on ethnicity, conflict and political violence. Contemporary Turkey in Conflict: Ethnicity, Islam and Politics was published by Edinburgh University Press and distributed by Oxford University Press in the USA in 2017. The book principally explores issues of ethno-religiouspolitical and social capital, with an emphasis on social conflict and  identity politics at the core and the periphery of Turkish society and politics. It has been reviewed in British Journal of Middle Eastern StudiesInternational AffairsNew Perspectives on Turkey, Turkish Studies and New Middle Eastern Studies.

My current body of work in The Hague falls under the radar of sociology and critical terrorism studies in attempting to explore the formations and challenges to various forms of ‘radicalisation from below’. My latest book, Islamophobia and Radicalisation: A Vicious Cycle, was published by Hurst in London and co-published by Oxford University Press in New York in late 2019. It has been reviewed in Ethnic and Racial StudiesJournal of Intercultural StudiesPostcolonial Studies, and The Times Literary Supplement. 

Other recent publications include an analysis of Muslim perceptions on Dutch government de-radicalisaton policy (with L Welten) published in Critical Studies on Terrorism in February 2021;  a related study on Dutch Muslim perspectives on salafism published by the ICCT Journal in April 2021; a sociological perspective on far right and Islamist reciprocal radicalisation in Western Europe published as an ICCT Policy Brief in January 2020; a critical analysis of the UK CVE ‘Prevent’ policy published in Critical Social Policy in August 2019; and the co-edited collection, Political Muslims: Understanding Youth Resistance in a Global Context (with S Hamid), published by Syracuse University Press in February 2019.

I have also published in various criminology, sociology of education, ethnic studies, Islamic studies, philosophy, small business, research methods, and terrorism studies journals. Some of my essays have been published in Spanish and German, and a few of my articles and books have been translated into German, Turkish, Spanish and Urdu.

My forthcoming book critically appraises the Countering Violent Extremism paradigm in a global context and it will be published by Bloomsbury-IB Tauris in May 2021.

Read reviews of my books here.


2001, PhD in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick, UK

1994, Master of Social Science in Economic Development and Policy, University of Birmingham, UK

1993, BSc(Econ) in Economics with Mathematical Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK

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